Efficacy of ozonated oils in odontogenic (oral) infections
Ozone has the ability to oxidize organic and inorganic compounds, reacting immediately with them. Thus, it is expected that it will oxidize the plasma membrane of various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, consequently, destroying them.
In fact, ozone has been used as a disinfectant for several years[i].
The antimicrobial effect of ozone happens to be one of the most studied themes and oxygen/ozone therapy in dentistry contains several protocols for the management of oral infection. To date, there are three fundamental forms in the application of Ozone Therapy:
- Ozonated water;
- Ozonated Olea europea oil [and other oils such as Helianthus annuus/Sunflower];
- Ozone/oxygen gaseous.
Ozonated water and oil have the ability to stabilize and release ozone in a balanced way, which makes these systems ideal for ozone delivery.
Given the germicidal actions and its oxygenating power, which favors tissue regeneration, ozonated oils can be used in the treatment of alveolitis, after extraction of the third molar[ii].
Also, in periodontitis (be it aggressive or of another etiology) the use of oils will act directly on the main cause of the pathogenesis of the disease – infection of the periodontium by pathogens, especially anaerobic gram-negative bacteria[iii]. For this reason, topical application of ozonated oils in the management of periodontitis has been used successfully.
Ozonated oils act against bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Its antimicrobial effect is the result of its action on the cells of the pathogen, by damaging the cytoplasmic membrane by the action of ozonolysis of the double bonds and the induction of the modification of the intracellular content, which occurs by contact with ozones and peroxides (through the oxidation of proteins leading to loss of organelle function). This oxidation side effect is selective to microbial walls and does not affect or damage human cells, and treatment with ozonated oils is effective even in agents resistant to antibiotic therapy.
Its antimicrobial activity increases in the presence of exudates and at acidic pH.
Ozonated oils are also able – due to their strong oxidizing action – to bind to molecules that present cysteine, methionine, histidine in their constitution (all of which are present in the walls of bacterial cell membranes) and act on thiol groups, deforming the bonds and giving rise to virus disruption.
Ozonated oils also make it possible to inactivate vital functions of bacteria without them developing immunity to their action and can act on gram positive bacteria – which are more sensitive to their action – but also on gram negative, anaerobic bacteria, being especially useful on cariogenic bacteria, above all, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.
In viral infections, it is the fact that ozonated oils are rich in peroxides and infected cells are highly intolerant to these compounds that alter the activity of reverse transcriptase, which prevents much of the synthesis of viral proteins[iv]. Given their action on several unsaturated fatty acids (present in viral envelopes and capsids) there is a rapid destruction of these agents without damage to human cells.
Beyond the various applications of gaseous and aqueous forms of ozone, the use of ozonated oils is extremely convenient and easy, being an effective antimicrobial product against various pathogens, from staphylococcus, streptococcus, enterococci,pseudomonas, Escherichia coli and mycobacteria, in addition to presenting antifungal propertiese[v].
The use of ozonated oils is so safe and simple that it can be used by the patient at home, after dental treatments in the clinic.
Examples of its uses[vi]:
- Periodontal pocket
At a clinic, with the use of a 25G hypodermic needle, filling the periodontal pocket (repeat treatment 1x/week).
At home, use ozonated oil after washing and apply it over the entire gum.
- Surgical procedure
In the clinic, ozonated water should be used for irrigation during the entire surgical process and for the final wash. Sutures should be covered with ozonated oil.
At home, use the ozonated oil after washing and apply it to the entire gum 3 to 4 times a day.
In clinical practice, it can be used in an attempt to save the implant, using gas and ozonated water for washing and disinfection, performing pocket therapy and irrigation. The oil must be injected 1x/week.
At home, use ozonated oil after washing and apply over the entire gum 3 to 4 times a day.
 Olive oil.
[i] The ozone paradox: ozone is a strong oxidant as well as a medical drug. Med Res Rev. 2009 Jul;29(4):646-82. doi: 10.1002/med.20150.
[ii] Shoukheba, M. Y. M., & Ali, S. A. (2014). The effects of subgingival application of ozonated olive oil gel in patient with localized aggressive periodontitis. A clinical and bacteriological study. Tanta Dental Journal, 11(1), 63–73. doi:10.1016/j.tdj.2014.04.001
[iii] The effects of subgingival application of ozonated olive oil gel in patient with localized aggressive periodontitis. A clinical and bacteriological study – Tanta Dental Journal Volume 11, Issue 1, April 2014, Pages 63-73
[iv] Seidler V, Linetskiy I, Hubálková H, Stanková H, Smucler R, Mazánek J. Ozone and its usage in general medicine and dentistry. A review article. Prague Med Rep. 2008;109(1):5-13. PMID: 19097384.
[v] Sechi LA, Lezcano I, Nunez N. Antibacterial activity of ozonized sunﬂower oil (Oleozon). J Microbiol. 2001;90:279–284.
Rodrigues KL, Cardoso CC, Caputo LR. Cicatrizing and antimicrobial properties of an ozonised oil from sunﬂower seeds. Inﬂammopharmacology. 2004;12:261–270
Nogales CG, Ferrari PH, Kantorovich EO. Ozone therapy in medicine and dentistry. J Contemp Dental Pract. 2008;9:1–9.
[vi] Gupta G, Mansi B. Ozone therapy in periodontics. J Med Life. 2012 Feb 22;5(1):59-67. Epub 2012 Mar 5. PMID: 22574088; PMCID: PMC3307081.